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dc.contributor.authorClapp, O.
dc.contributor.authorMorgan, M.Z.
dc.contributor.authorFairchild, Ruth M.
dc.date.accessioned2019-02-14T09:44:03Z
dc.date.available2019-02-14T09:44:03Z
dc.date.issued2019-04-12
dc.identifier.citationClapp, O., Morgan, M.Z. and Fairchild, R.M. (2019) 'The top five selling UK energy drinks: implications for dental and general health', British Dental Journal, 226(7), p.493 -497.
dc.identifier.issn0007-0610
dc.identifier.issn1476-5373
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10369/10312
dc.descriptionArticle published in British Dental Journal available at https://doi.org/10.1038/s41415-019-0114-0en_US
dc.description.abstractAim Energy drinks are widely consumed worldwide, and are recognised for their adverse health effects, usually due to their high caffeine content. However, little is known about their impact on oral and general health . The aim of this investigation was to review the most popular energy drinks sold in the UK, for their possible effect on oral health and contribution to obesity. Materials and Method s Five drinks constituting 75% of the UK energy drinks market were purposively selected ( Lucozade, Redbull, Monster, Rockstar and Relentless) . pH and sugar content were measured and their ingredients reviewed in the context of oral and general health, focussing on dental caries and erosion and obesity . Results All 5 energy drinks investigated had pH values below the critical value (5.5) associated with dental erosion; t he lowest pH was 2.7 2 (Lucozade ), the highest pH was 3.37 (Monster). The drinks also contained excessive amounts of free sugars, ranging from 25.5g (Red Bull) to 69.2g (Rockstar). Differences in sugar content were mainly explained by portion size. Other ingredients contained within the energy drinks, caffeine and various acids are also linked to oral and general health. Conclusion Regular consumption of energy drinks could contribute to dental erosion and the development of obesity. Lucozade and Rockstar were found to potentially have the greatest impact on oral health and obesity . Achieving a healthy product by reformulation is highly unlikely due to the very high initial free sugar content. Thus health professionals need to acknowledge the popularity of these products and help their clients to reduce their use. This is the first study which compares in detail the potential oral and general health consequences of overuse of a selection of energy drinks popular in the UK.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherSpringeren_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesBritish Dental Journal;
dc.subjectenergy drinksen_US
dc.subjectoral healthen_US
dc.subjectobesityen_US
dc.subjectpHen_US
dc.subjectsugaren_US
dc.subjectdental cariesen_US
dc.subjectdental erosionen_US
dc.titleThe top 5 Selling UK Energy Drinks implications for dental and general healthen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1038/s41415-019-0114-0
dcterms.dateAccepted2018-11-08
rioxxterms.funderCardiff Metropolitan Universityen_US
rioxxterms.identifier.projectCardiff Metropolian (Internal)en_US
rioxxterms.versionAMen_US
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/under-embargo-all-rights-reserveden_US
rioxxterms.freetoread.startdate2019-10-12
rioxxterms.funder.project37baf166-7129-4cd4-b6a1-507454d1372een_US


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