Applying mastery TARGET structures to Cooperative Learning in PE
Taylor & Francis
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The purpose of this article is to critically apply the mastery TARGET structures (task, authority, recognition, grouping, evaluation and time) to the Cooperative Learning model in Physical Education. The premise is that the TARGET structures are highly applicable to the Cooperative Learning model and that combining both approaches will optimize student motivation in PE. The structure of the article follows the TARGET acronym and identifies how implementing each of the mastery TARGET structures could potentially enhance the motivational climate associated with the Cooperative Learning model. In doing so, the article, firstly introduces each of the TARGET structures and then critically applies them to the Cooperative Learning model in a PE context. The key elements of Cooperative Learning; positive interdependence, individual accountability, face-face interaction, interpersonal and small group skills, and group processing have close links with a number of the TARGET structures and these are critically explored. It is anticipated that this article could be used to further enrich the Cooperative Learning model and to open up new avenues of research that combine TARGET and Cooperative Learning.
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance;
Article accepted for publication in Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance
Cardiff Metropolitan University (Grant ID: Cardiff Metropolian (Internal))
- Sport Research Groups 
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