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dc.contributor.authorMcGregor, Gordon
dc.contributor.authorEnnis, Stuart
dc.contributor.authorPowell, Richard
dc.contributor.authorHamborg, Thomas
dc.contributor.authorRaymond, Neil
dc.contributor.authorOwen, William
dc.contributor.authorAldridge, Nicholas
dc.contributor.authorEvans, Gail
dc.contributor.authorGoodby, Josie
dc.contributor.authorHewins, Sue
dc.contributor.authorBanerjee, Prithwish
dc.contributor.authorKrishnan, Nithya
dc.contributor.authorTing, Stephen
dc.contributor.authorZehnder, Daniel
dc.date.accessioned2019-04-26T10:18:18Z
dc.date.available2019-04-26T10:18:18Z
dc.date.issued2018-07-11
dc.identifier.citationMcGregor, G., Ennis, S., Powell, R., Hamborg, T., Raymond, N.T., Owen, W., Aldridge, N., Evans, G., Goodby, J., Hewins, S. and Banerjee, P. (2018) 'Feasibility and effects of intra-dialytic low-frequency electrical muscle stimulation and cycle training: A pilot randomized controlled trial', PloS one, 13(7), p.e0200354. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0200354.en_US
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10369/10453
dc.descriptionArticle published in PLoS ONE on 11 July 2018, available open access at: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0200354.en_US
dc.description.abstractBackground and objectives: Exercise capacity is reduced in chronic kidney failure (CKF). Intra-dialytic cycling is beneficial, but comorbidity and fatigue can prevent this type of training. Low–frequency electrical muscle stimulation (LF-EMS) of the quadriceps and hamstrings elicits a cardiovascular training stimulus and may be a suitable alternative. The main objectives of this trial were to assess the feasibility and efficacy of intra-dialytic LF-EMS vs. cycling Design, setting, participants, and measurements: Assessor blind, parallel group, randomized controlled pilot study with sixty-four stable patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Participants were randomized to 10 weeks of 1) intra-dialytic cycling, 2) intra-dialytic LF-EMS, or 3) non-exercise control. Exercise was performed for up to one hour three times per week. Cycling workload was set at 40–60% oxygen uptake (VO2) reserve, and LF-EMS at maximum tolerable intensity. The control group did not complete any intra-dialytic exercise. Feasibility of intra-dialytic LF-EMS and cycling was the primary outcome, assessed by monitoring recruitment, retention and tolerability. At baseline and 10 weeks, secondary outcomes including cardio-respiratory reserve, muscle strength, and cardio-arterial structure and function were assessed. Results: Fifty-one (of 64 randomized) participants completed the study (LF-EMS = 17 [77%], cycling = 16 [80%], control = 18 [82%]). Intra-dialytic LF-EMS and cycling were feasible and well tolerated (9% and 5% intolerance respectively, P = 0.9). At 10-weeks, cardio-respiratory reserve (VO2 peak) (Difference vs. control: LF-EMS +2.0 [95% CI, 0.3 to 3.7] ml.kg-1.min-1, P = 0.02, and cycling +3.0 [95% CI, 1.2 to 4.7] ml.kg-1.min-1, P = 0.001) and leg strength (Difference vs. control: LF-EMS, +94 [95% CI, 35.6 to 152.3] N, P = 0.002 and cycling, +65.1 [95% CI, 6.4 to 123.8] N, P = 0.002) were improved. Arterial structure and function were unaffected. Conclusions: Ten weeks of intra-dialytic LF-EMS or cycling improved cardio-respiratory reserve and muscular strength. For patients who are unable or unwilling to cycle during dialysis, LF-EMS is a feasible alternative.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipFunded by West Midlands Comprehensive Local Research Networken_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherPLoSen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesPLoS ONE;
dc.titleFeasibility and effects of intra-dialytic low-frequency electrical muscle stimulation and cycle training: A pilot randomized controlled trialen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0200354
dcterms.dateAccepted2018-06-22
rioxxterms.funderCardiff Metropolitan Universityen_US
rioxxterms.identifier.projectCardiff Metropolian (Internal)en_US
rioxxterms.versionVoRen_US
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en_US
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2019-04-26
rioxxterms.funder.project37baf166-7129-4cd4-b6a1-507454d1372een_US


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