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dc.contributor.authorManchaiah, Vinaya
dc.contributor.authorZhao, Fei
dc.contributor.authorWiden, Stephen
dc.contributor.authorAuzenne, Jasmin
dc.contributor.authorBeukes, Eldre W
dc.contributor.authorAhmadi, Tayebeh
dc.contributor.authorTome, David
dc.contributor.authorMahadeva, Deepthi
dc.contributor.authorKrishna, Rajalakshmi
dc.contributor.authorGermundsson, Per
dc.identifier.citationManchaiah, V., Zhao, F., Widen, S., Auzenne, J., Beukes, E.W., Ahmadi, T., Tome, D., Mahadeva, D., Krishna, R. and Germundsson, P. (2017) 'Social representation of “loud music” in young adults: A cross-cultural study', Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 28(6), pp.522-533. DOI: 10.3766/jaaa.16046.en_US
dc.descriptionArticle published in Journal of the American Academy of Audiology on 01 June 2017, available at:
dc.descriptionClosed deposit- Copy not freely available from this repository.
dc.description.abstractBackground: Exposure to recreational noise, particularly music exposure, is considered one of the biggest public health hazards of our time. Some important influencing factors such as socioeconomic status, educational background, and cross-cultural perspectives have previously been found to be associated with attitudes toward loud music and the use of hearing protection. Although culture seems to play an important role, there is relatively little known about how it influences perceptions regarding loud music exposure in young adults. Purpose: The present study was aimed to explore cross-cultural perceptions of and reactions to loud music in young adults (18‐25 yr) using the theory of social representations. Research Design: The study used a cross-sectional survey design. Study Sample: The study sample included young adults (n = 534) from five different countries (India, Iran, Portugal, the United States, and the United Kingdom) who were recruited using convenience sampling. Data Collection and Analysis: Data were collected using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using a content analysis, co-occurrence analysis, and also χ2 analysis. Results: Fairly equal numbers of positive and negative connotations (∼40%) were noted in all countries. However, the χ2 analysis showed significant differences between the countries (most positive connotations were found in India and Iran, whereas the most negative connotations were found in the United Kingdom and Portugal) regarding the informants’ perception of loud music. The co-occurrence analysis results generally indicate that the category “negative emotions and actions” occurred most frequently, immediately followed by the category “positive emotions and actions.” The other most frequently occurring categories included “acoustics,” “physical aliment,” “location,” and “ear and hearing problems.” These six categories formed the central nodes of the social representation of loud music exposure in the global index. Although some similarities and differences were noted among the social representations toward loud music among countries, it is noteworthy that more similarities than differences were noted among countries. Conclusions: The study results suggest that “loud music” is perceived to have both positive and negative aspects within society and culture. We suggest that the health promotion strategies should focus on changing societal norms and regulations to be more effective in decreasing the noise- and/or music-induced auditory symptoms among young adults.en_US
dc.publisherAmerican Academy of Audiologyen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesJournal of the American Academy of Audiology;
dc.titleSocial Representation of "Loud Music" in Young Adults: A Cross-Cultural Studyen_US
rioxxterms.funderCardiff Metropolitan Universityen_US
rioxxterms.identifier.projectCardiff Metropolian (Internal)en_US
dc.refexceptionThe publication concerned actively disallows open-access deposit in a repository, and was the most appropriate publication for the output

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