Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections across Europe and Israel (2011-2016)
Beeton, Michael L.
Uldum, Søren A.
Spiller, O. Brad
Chalker, Victoria J.
ESCMID Study Group for Mycoplasma and Chlamydia Infections (ESGMAC) Mycoplasma pneumoniae sub-group
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
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Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a leading cause of community acquired pneumonia with large epidemics occurring every 4 to 7 years. Infections are predominantly seen among paediatric populations. Aim To determine the diagnostic methods used to detect M. pneumoniae, the seasonality of detections, identification of epidemics, macrolide resistance data availability, patient age demographics for positive detections and the effect of geographical location on timing of epidemics. Methods A retrospective questionnaire was sent out to 18 countries across Europe and Israel requesting details on the number of M. pneumoniae positive samples from January 2011 to April 2016. Information requested included: methods of detection, date of detection, availability of macrolide resistance data and number of detections stratified by age group. The Moving Epidemic Method was used to determine epidemic periods across the countries for the five periods under investigation and effect of country latitude Results 12/18 countries supplied data on M. pneumoniae infections accounting for 95,666 positive samples. Few laboratories have initiated routine macrolide resistance testing since 2013. Between 2011 – 2016 three epidemics were identified during 2011/12, 2014/15 and 2015/16. Three patterns emerged from the distribution of patient ages for M. pneumoniae positive samples. During epidemic years an association between country latitude and week number in which epidemic periods began was noted. Conclusions This study represents the largest multi-national epidemiological analysis of M. pneumoniae data. Association between epidemics and latitude was observed. Differences were noted in age distribution of positive cases, the methods used for detection and the lack of macrolide resistance monitoring.
Article accepted for publication in Eurosurveillance
Cardiff Metropolitan University (Grant ID: Cardiff Metropolian (Internal))
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