‘Women can’t referee’: exploring the experiences of female football officials within UK football culture
Taylor and Francis
MetadataShow full item record
The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of female (association) football officials who officiate in amateur men’s and boys’ football matches in two UK counties (Warwickshire and Somerset). The research presents a view of men’s football from a position that has hitherto been overlooked in the social exploration of football culture. Drawing upon ethnographic fieldwork collected between September and December 2012, the findings provide insight into some women’s experiences of sexism and marginalization in predominantly male football contexts. Participant observations, formal semi-structured interviews and a range of informal conversations with four female match officials demonstrated a wide range of abuse that could generally be construed as sexist. The women used various strategies to overcome the hostile attitudes that often greeted their presence on the football pitch. Moreover, they continuously negotiated their identities as females and football officials in a space where men and masculinity are prevalent.
Soccer & Society;
Forbes, A., Edwards, L. and Fleming, S. (2014) '‘Women can’t referee’: exploring the experiences of female football officials within UK football culture', Soccer & Society, 16(4). DOI: 10.1080/14660970.2014.882829.
Article published in Soccer & Society on 06 February 2014, available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/14660970.2014.882829.
Cardiff Metropolitan University (Grant ID: Cardiff Metropolian (Internal))
- Sport Research Groups 
Showing items related by title, author, subject and abstract.
‘Women can’t referee’: exploring the experiences of female football officials within UK football culture Forbes, Alison (2013-02)The purpose of this article is to explore the experiences of four female football officials who officiate in men‟s and boy‟s football matches in the UK. The research presents a view of men‟s football from a position that ...
Technology versus officials: What are the problems and issues caused by introducing the goal line technology in football and how does this affect the referees? Santiago, Karla (Cardiff Metropolitan University, 2009)The study examines the different kinds of technology used in football and the importance of introducing Goal Line Technology to assist football officials. Therefore, the literature review highlights how other sports have ...
Jones, Philippa L.; Kerwin, David G.; Irwin, Gareth; Nokes, Len D.M. (Walter H Chang, 2009)In 2004, Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) officially recognized artificial turf (football turf) as an appropriate playing surface for competitive football, although surface suitability remains ...