Iron-Rich Magnetic Coal Fly Ash Particles Induce Apoptosis in Human Bronchial Cells
MetadataDangos cofnod eitem llawn
Svalbard is an arctic archipelago where coal mining generates all electricity via the local coal-fired power station. Coal combustion produces a waste product in the form of particulate matter (PM) coal fly ash (CFA), derived from incombustible minerals present in the feed coal. PM ≤10 µm (diameter) may be “inhaled” into the human respiratory system, and particles ≤2.5 µm may enter the distal alveoli to disrupt normal pulmonary functions and trigger disease pathways. This study discovered that Svalbard CFA contained unusually high levels of iron-rich magnetic minerals that induced adverse effects upon human lungs cells. Iron is a well-characterised driver of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, a driving force for cell death and disease. CFA physicochemical characterisation showed non-uniform particle morphologies indicative of coal burnt at inefficient combustion temperatures. The bioreactivity (ROS generation) of PM2.5/10 fractions was measured using plasmid scission assay (PSA, DNA damage) and haemolysis assays (erythrocyte lysis), with PM2.5 CFA showing significant bioreactivity. CFA leached in mild acid caused a significant increase in toxicity, which could occur in CFA waste-stores. The CFA and leachates were exposed to a surrogate model of human bronchial epithelia that confirmed that CFA induced apoptosis in bronchial cells. This study shows that CFA containing magnetic iron-rich minerals mediated adverse reactions in the human lung, and thus CFA should be considered to be an environmental inhalation hazard.
Lawson, M.J., Prytherch, Z.C., Jones, T.P., Adams, R.A. and BéruBé, K.A. (2020) 'Iron-Rich Magnetic Coal Fly Ash Particles Induce Apoptosis in Human Bronchial Cells', Applied Sciences, 10(23), p.8368. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238368
Dynodwr Gwrthrych Digidol (DOI)https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238368
Article published in Applied Science available open access at https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238368
Cardiff Metropolitan University (Grant ID: Cardiff Metropolian (Internal))
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