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dc.contributor.authorLawson, Matthew
dc.contributor.authorPrytherch, Zoe
dc.contributor.authorJones, Tim
dc.contributor.authorAdams, Rachel
dc.contributor.authorBéruBé, Kelly
dc.date.accessioned2020-12-04T12:45:48Z
dc.date.available2020-12-04T12:45:48Z
dc.date.issued2020-11-25
dc.identifier.citationLawson, M.J., Prytherch, Z.C., Jones, T.P., Adams, R.A. and BéruBé, K.A. (2020) 'Iron-Rich Magnetic Coal Fly Ash Particles Induce Apoptosis in Human Bronchial Cells', Applied Sciences, 10(23), p.8368. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238368en_US
dc.identifier.issn2076-3417
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10369/11239
dc.descriptionArticle published in Applied Science available open access at https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238368en_US
dc.description.abstractSvalbard is an arctic archipelago where coal mining generates all electricity via the local coal-fired power station. Coal combustion produces a waste product in the form of particulate matter (PM) coal fly ash (CFA), derived from incombustible minerals present in the feed coal. PM ≤10 µm (diameter) may be “inhaled” into the human respiratory system, and particles ≤2.5 µm may enter the distal alveoli to disrupt normal pulmonary functions and trigger disease pathways. This study discovered that Svalbard CFA contained unusually high levels of iron-rich magnetic minerals that induced adverse effects upon human lungs cells. Iron is a well-characterised driver of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, a driving force for cell death and disease. CFA physicochemical characterisation showed non-uniform particle morphologies indicative of coal burnt at inefficient combustion temperatures. The bioreactivity (ROS generation) of PM2.5/10 fractions was measured using plasmid scission assay (PSA, DNA damage) and haemolysis assays (erythrocyte lysis), with PM2.5 CFA showing significant bioreactivity. CFA leached in mild acid caused a significant increase in toxicity, which could occur in CFA waste-stores. The CFA and leachates were exposed to a surrogate model of human bronchial epithelia that confirmed that CFA induced apoptosis in bronchial cells. This study shows that CFA containing magnetic iron-rich minerals mediated adverse reactions in the human lung, and thus CFA should be considered to be an environmental inhalation hazard.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherMDPIen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesApplied Sciences;
dc.subjectbioreactivityen_US
dc.subjectcytotoxicityen_US
dc.subjectcoal fly ashen_US
dc.subjectparticulate matteren_US
dc.subjectleachateen_US
dc.subjectiron-rich mineralsen_US
dc.subjectSvalbarden_US
dc.titleIron-Rich Magnetic Coal Fly Ash Particles Induce Apoptosis in Human Bronchial Cellsen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.3390/app10238368
dcterms.dateAccepted2020-11-19
rioxxterms.funderCardiff Metropolitan Universityen_US
rioxxterms.identifier.projectCardiff Metropolian (Internal)en_US
rioxxterms.versionVoRen_US
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en_US
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2020-12-04
rioxxterms.funder.project37baf166-7129-4cd4-b6a1-507454d1372een_US


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