Lower-limb biomechanical asymmetry in maximal velocity sprint running
Exell, Timothy A.
University of Wales
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Biomechanical asymmetry analyses have provided valuable insight into submaximal running and walking gait. Knowledge of asymmetry in sprint running is limited due to traditional unilateral methods of data collection. The overall aim of this research was to develop insight into kinematic and kinetic asymmetry in sprint running, with the purpose of informing future research specifically into maximal velocity sprint running. Asymmetry was quantified for a group of trained sprint runners (mean velocity = 9.03 m∙s-1) using an existing symmetry angle (θSYM) measure. Biomechanical methods were developed to maximise the collection of kinematic data utilising both marker-based and non-intrusive techniques, and kinetic data using multiple force plates. Calculations were extended, to build on the θSYM, and used for quantifying overall kinematic and kinetic asymmetry for individual athletes. Novel asymmetry scores were developed that incorporated the previously negated consideration of intra-limb variability. The interaction of kinematic and kinetic asymmetry was compared for a range of sprint runners using the newly created asymmetry scores. θSYM values were larger for key kinematic variables than step characteristics; values of 6.7% and 1.7% were reported for touchdown distance and step frequency, respectively. The largest asymmetry values were kinetic, with some θSYM values exceeding 90%. The magnitude of asymmetry and variables that displayed significant asymmetry varied on an inter-athlete basis. Kinematic and kinetic asymmetry scores developed within this research ranged from 4.5 to 27.6 and 6.3 to 28.7, respectively; however, no consistent relationship between kinematic and kinetic asymmetry was found. Compensatory kinetic mechanisms may serve to reduce the effects of asymmetry on step characteristics and the performance outcome of step velocity. The novel bilateral analyses performed in this research identified the presence of asymmetry, indicating that unilateral analyses of sprint running may lead to important information being overlooked.
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Exell, Timothy A.; Irwin, Gareth; Gittoes, Marianne J.R.; Kerwin, David G. (Wiley, 2016-09-27)The aim of this study was to empirically examine the interaction of athlete-specific kinematic kinetic and strength asymmetry in sprint running. Bilateral ground reaction force and kinematic data were collected during ...
Exell, Timothy A.; Gittoes, Marianne J.R.; Irwin, Gareth; Kerwin, David G. (Elsevier, 2012)Gait asymmetry analyses are beneficial from clinical, coaching and technology perspectives. Quantifying overall athlete asymmetry would be useful in allowing comparisons between participants, or between asymmetry and other ...
Exell, Timothy A.; Irwin, Gareth; Gittoes, Marianne J.R.; Kerwin, David G. (Taylor & Francis, 2012)The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intra-limb variability on the calculation of asymmetry with the purpose of informing future analyses. Asymmetry has previously been quantified for discrete kinematic ...