A comparison of imagery modality and perspective between elite and non-elite athletes
University of Wales
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Over the last three decades considerable research attention has been focused on the use of imagery in a variety of sport settings. However there is a gap in the research when examining modality and perspective of imagery, specifically when comparing elite and non-elite athletes. The purpose of this study was to explore differences in imagery vividness, perspective preference and the use of kinaesthetic imagery between elite and non-elite athletes. A sample of 72 sports students (36 elite, 36 non-elite) of the University of Wales Institute, Cardiff completed an adapted version of the Vividness of Movement Questionnaire (VMIQ-2; Roberts et al., 2005). The questionnaire involved athletes developing images of a range of movements before rating the vividness of each image. Consistent with Callow and Roberts (2010), extra items involved rating perspective preference, use of kinaesthetic imagery with visual imagery and angle of external visual imagery. Independent t-tests, MANOVAs and Chi-Square tests showed elite athletes to report greater vividness for all three imagery types; internal visual imagery, external visual imagery and kinaesthetic imagery. There were no significant differences between internal and external imagery preference or kinaesthetic imagery use. Kinaesthetic imagery was found to be significantly correlated with internal visual imagery, but not with external visual imagery for both groups. Both groups used a range of angles when using external visual imagery; however elite athletes reported a significantly wider variety in angles. To conclude skill level appears to influence certain aspects of imagery, however limitations are stated and future research is recommended to evaluate the causes and processes behind these differences.
BA Enterprise Project
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