Evaluation of biomarkers for the risk stratification of patients with urological malignancies
University of Wales Institute Cardiff
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Introduction: Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in men worldwide. Currently the biomarker used to diagnose and manage prostate cancer is Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA). Due to its associated disadvantages other biomarkers are being investigated in an attempt to find more sensitive and specific biomarkers for the diagnosis, management and prognosis of prostate cancer. This investigation looks at two biomarkers, PBOV-1 and beta-catenin. PBOV-1 has shown promising results in distinguishing between aggressive and non-aggressive prostate cancers. Investigations involving beta-catenin and its use as a biomarker in prostate cancer have produced some conflicting results. However, the oncogenic mechanism makes it an ideal diagnostic biomarker. The aim of this study was to identify the potential use of beta-catenin and PBOV-1 as a prognostic and risk stratification biomarker for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: The expression of both PBOV-1 and beta-catenin was determined using Immunohistochemistry. In total there were 183 prostate tissues of ranging Gleason score (from 5 to 10) in the Tissue Microarray for analysing beta-catenin expression; and 157 prostate tissues in the Tissue Microarray for analysing PBOV-1 expression. Each tissue core was given a score for intensity, distribution and location of the expression of each protein. A chi-squared test was used to assess whether there was a significant relationship between intensity, distribution or location of beta-catenin and PBOV-1 expression, and Gleason score. Results: The chi-squared test showed that there was no significant relationship between the intensity (p=0.41), distribution (p=0.732) or location (p=0.763) of PBOV-1 expression and Gleason score. The chi-squared test along with Fisher’s exact test demonstrated that there was no significant relationship between the intensity (p=0.13), distribution (p=0.391) or location (p=0.976) of beta-catenin expression and Gleason score. Discussion: Due to the limitations of the investigation, which include the absence of benign and low Gleason scoring prostate cancers, limited numbers of prostate tissues of particular Gleason scores and the dependent scoring of the tissues, the reliability of the results obtained is questionable. Despite the results of this investigation, there is evidence from other studies warranting further investigation into both PBOV-1 and beta-catenin and their role and expression in prostate cancer.
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