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dc.contributor.authorBell, Bill
dc.contributor.authorColley, J.P.
dc.contributor.authorEvans, W.D.
dc.contributor.authorDarlington, S.E.
dc.contributor.authorCooper, Stephen-Mark
dc.identifier.citationBell, W., Colley, J.P., Evans, W.D., Darlington, S.E. and Cooper, S.M. (2012) 'ACTN3 genotypes of Rugby Union players: distribution, power output and body composition', Annals of Human Biology, 39(1), pp.19-27.en_GB
dc.identifier.issn0301-4460 (print)
dc.identifier.issn1464-5033 (online)
dc.descriptionThis article was published in Annals of Human Biology on 28 November 2011 (online), available at
dc.description.abstractBackground and aim: To identify the distribution and explore the relationship between ACTN3 genotypes and power and body composition phenotypes. Subjects and methods: Case control and association studies were employed using a homogeneous group of players (n = 102) and a control group (n = 110). Power-related phenotypes were measured using the counter movement jump (CMJ) and body composition phenotypes by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Statistics used were Pearson's chi-square, ANCOVA, coefficients of correlation and independent t-tests. Genotyping was carried out using polymerase chain reaction followed by enzymatic Ddel digestion. Results: Genotype proportions of players were compared with controls (p = 0.07). No significant genotype differences occurred between forwards or backs (p = 0.822) or within-forwards (p = 0.882) or within-backs (p = 0.07). Relative force and velocity were significantly larger in backs, power significantly greater in forwards; in body composition, all phenotypes were significantly greater in forwards than backs. Correlations between phenotypes were greater for the RX genotype (p = 0.05–0.01). Conclusions: Relationships between ACTN3 genotypes and power or body composition-related phenotypes were not significant. As fat increased, power-related phenotypes decreased. As body composition increased, power-related phenotypes increased.
dc.publisherInforma Healthcare
dc.relation.ispartofseriesAnnals of Human Biology
dc.subjectrugby union
dc.subjectpower output
dc.subjectbody composition
dc.titleACTN3 geneotypes in rugby union players: distribution, power output and body compositionen_GB

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