Counterfeiting in performance and image enhancing drugs
Graham, Michael R.
Baker, Julien S.
Thomas, Non E.
Walker, Chistopher J.
Kicman, Andrew T.
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The current drastic escalation in obesity may be contributing to the exponential rise in drugs used for image enhancement. Drugs such as anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are perceived as a viable method of achieving a perfect physique. They are also the most widely abused drugs in sport. The Internet has encouraged the abuse of expensive drugs, particularly human growth hormone (hGH), resulting in increased importation for personal use. The substantial increase in this market has opened up avenues for counterfeiting, estimated as a multi-million pound business. The acute adverse effects from contaminated vials may result in a variety of pathologies including communicable diseases. In 2007, in the UK, a series of intramuscular abscesses, requiring surgical treatment, led us to study samples obtained from the underground market.
Drug Testing and Analysis
Graham, M.R., Ryan, P., Baker, J.S., Davies, B., Thomas, N.E., Cooper, S.M., Evans, P., Easmon, S., Walker, C.J., Cowan, D. and Kicman, A.T. (2009) 'Counterfeiting in performance-and image-enhancing drugs', Drug Testing and Analysis, 1(3), p.135-142.
This article was published in Drug Testing and Analysis available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dta.30
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