Content of command hallucinations predicts self-harm but not violence in a medium secure unit
Gray, Nicola S.
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Evidence to date has supported negative relationships, a null relationship and a positive relationship between command hallucinations and violence or self-harm. This study was designed to determine the relationship between command hallucinations with violent or self-harm content and incidents of violence and self-harm in forensic inpatients. Patients with (n = 56) and without (n = 54) a lifetime history of command hallucinations and resident in a medium-security hospital were identified through clinical and legal records over 51 months. Measures included: staff-observed violence and self-harm; presence and content of command hallucinations; paranoid delusions; previous violent convictions; length of stay; gender; history of alcohol or illicit drug abuse. Statistical analyses used negative binomial regression. Violent command hallucinations and inpatient violence were unrelated. Self-harming command hallucinations and an absence of paranoid delusions were positively associated with self-harm. The processes that determine compliance with command hallucinations remain unclear.
Journal of Forensic Psychiatry
Rogers, P., Watt, A., Gray, N.S., MacCulloch, M. and Gournay, K. (2002) 'Content of command hallucinations predicts self-harm but not violence in a medium secure unit', The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry, 13(2), pp.251-262
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