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dc.contributor.authorO'Brien, M.
dc.contributor.authorMellalieu, Stephen D.
dc.contributor.authorHanton, Sheldon
dc.identifier.citationO’Brien, M., Mellalieu, S. and Hanton, S. (2009) 'Goal-setting effects in elite and non-elite boxers', Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 21(3), pp.293-306.en_US
dc.descriptionThis article was published in Journal of Applied Sport Psychology on 24 July 2009 (online), available at
dc.description.abstractUsing a goal-setting model (Burton, Naylor, & Holliday, 2001 ), the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a goal-setting intervention upon performance as a function of skill level. A multiple-baseline across-individuals single subject design was employed with 3 elite and 3 nonelite male boxers aged between 15–17 years (M = 16; SD = 1). Self-generated performance behaviors, competition outcome, competitive anxiety intensity and direction, and self-confidence were measured across a competitive season (10-fight period). Retention was also examined following treatment withdrawal (2-fight period). During and after the goal program was completed, the elite participants displayed consistent improvements in targeted behaviors, more facilitative interpretations of anxiety symptoms, and greater self-confidence, whereas the nonelite revealed inconsistent patterns. Postintervention, five out of the six boxers showed improvement in the percentage of fights won. The results highlight the diverse effects of goal-setting for different populations, with social validation data suggesting potential mechanism via the goal-setting model employed and changes to attentional focus.
dc.relation.ispartofseriesJournal of Applied Sport Psychology
dc.titleGoal setting effects in elite and non-elite boxersen_US

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