Left ventricular mechanical limitations to stroke volume in healthy humans during incremental exercise
Stöhr, Eric J.
American Physiological Society
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During incremental exercise, stroke volume (SV) plateaus at 40–50% of maximal exercise capacity. In healthy individuals, left ventricular (LV) twist and untwisting (“LV twist mechanics”) contribute to the generation of SV at rest, but whether the plateau in SV during incremental exercise is related to a blunting in LV twist mechanics remains unknown. To test this hypothesis, nine healthy young males performed continuous and discontinuous incremental supine cycling exercise up to 90% peak power in a randomized order. During both exercise protocols, end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), and SV reached a plateau at submaximal exercise intensities while heart rate increased continuously. Similar to LV volumes, two-dimensional speckle tracking-derived LV twist and untwisting velocity increased gradually from rest (all P < 0.001) and then leveled off at submaximal intensities. During continuous exercise, LV twist mechanics were linearly related to ESV, SV, heart rate, and cardiac output (all P < 0.01) while the relationship with EDV was exponential. In diastole, the increase in apical untwisting was significantly larger than that of basal untwisting (P < 0.01), emphasizing the importance of dynamic apical function. In conclusion, during incremental exercise, the plateau in LV twist mechanics and their close relationship with SV and cardiac output indicate a mechanical limitation in maximizing LV output during high exercise intensities. However, LV twist mechanics do not appear to be the sole factor limiting LV output, since EDV reaches its maximum before the plateau in LV twist mechanics, suggesting additional limitations in diastolic filling to the heart.
American Journal of Physiology: Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Stöhr, E.J., González-Alonso, J. and Shave, R. (2011) 'Left ventricular mechanical limitations to stroke volume in healthy humans during incremental exercise', American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 301(2), pp.H478-H487.
This article was published in American Journal of Physiology: Heart and Circulatory Physiology on 1 August 2011, available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00314.2011
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Impaired myocardial function does not explain reduced left ventricular filling and stroke volume at rest or during exercise at high altitude Stembridge, Mike; Ainslie, Philip; Hughes, Michael G.; Stöhr, Eric J.; Cotter, James D.; Tymko, Michael M.; Day, Trevor A.; Bakker, Akke; Shave, Rob (American Physiological Society, 2015-11-15)Impaired myocardial systolic contraction and diastolic relaxation have been suggested as possible mechanisms contributing to the decreased stroke volume (SV) observed at high altitude (HA). To determine whether intrinsic ...
Intrinsic ventricular function does not explain reduced stroke volume at rest and during exercise at high altitude Stembridge, Mike; Ainslie, Philip; Stöhr, Eric J.; Tymko, Michael; Day, Trevor A.; Bakker, Akke; Hughes, Michael G.; Smith, K.J; Willie, C.K.; Lewis, N.C.S.; Shave, Rob (Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine, 2015-01-25)Introduction: Both impaired systolic dysfunction and myocardial relaxation have previously been advanced as possible mechanisms contributing to decreased stroke volume (SV) at high altitude (HA). To determine whether ...
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