The Effects of Music on Physiological Responses in Sub Maximal Arm Crank Ergometry
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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Previous research has provided mixed results in regards to the use of music as an ergogenic aid. Some studies have found a positive impact of music on performance, whereas others have found none. This study focused on using a music intervention in sub maximal upper body exercise that had a major element of anaerobic work. Specifically, the aim was to monitor variations. Six physically active, but non-specifically-trained, men volunteered to participate. Their mean age, height and mass were 20.3 s = 0.8 years, 177 s = 0.07 cm and 70.3 s = 5.7 kg respectively. Initially, the participants completed a peak power protocol to determine 80% of their peak power as a wattage, whilst maintaining an imposed crank rate of 80 rev·min-1. The participants then completed two tests to exhaustion at 80% of their relative peak power, using a self-selected crank rate. The first test was completed under a control condition whilst the other test was completed in a music condition. During the music condition, the participants listened to a selection of songs through headphones at full volume. The songs were roughly 140 b·min-1 as suggested by Karageorghis et al. (2011). A gas analysis system was attached to each participant during both test conditions and respiratory values were recorded, along with mean crank rate, heart rate and the rating of perceived exertion. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences (P > 0.05) between the time to exhaustion, crank rate and peak values of heart rate, the volume of oxygen consumed, the volume of carbon dioxide produced, pulmonary ventilation, the rating of perceived exertion and the respiratory exchange ratio in either test conditions. The peak values for the volume of oxygen consumed and heart rate for the control condition were 2393.5 s = 226.3 ml·min-1 and 183 s = 8 b·min-1 respectively. Similarly, the peak values for the volume of oxygen consumed and heart rate were 2235.8 s = 384.6 ml·min-1 and 184 s = 11 b·min-1 respectively within the music condition. Analysis of the findings demonstrated that music did not enhance physiological responses during sub maximal arm crank ergometry and there was no increase in performance. However, there was some evidence to support previously published theories regarding synchronisation of movement patterns to music.
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