The influence of crowd effects on competition stress and emotions on female football
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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Existing sport psychology stress research informed by Lazarus’ (1999) CMRT has failed to allude to the stress-emotion process in detail during specific sporting situations. Consequently, this study aimed to provide a detailed insight into the stressful experiences of players during a penalty shootout through semi-structured interviews; specifically, examining the influence of the entire stress and emotion process on penalty kick performance with and without a crowd present. The findings showed that the majority of players showed debilitative perceptions towards performance, resulting in them missing their shot. However, it has emerged that not all non-elite performers have negative views of such stressful situations; thus, contradicting previous research (e.g. Jones et al., 1993; 1995; Neil et al., 2011). This investigation was the first to explore the stress-emotion process within a specific sporting environment, thus providing a foundation for future research. Additionally, the current study has provided coaches and sport psychologists with a fundamental understanding of the stress process and its’ influence on performance. Furthermore, relevant training programmes and psychological strategies can be implemented with the ambition of achieving optimal performance in athletes.
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