Movement Variability in Archery
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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It is widely accepted among archers that holding steady whilst shooting is an integral component of successful performance. Archers resort to different techniques, equipment changes and strength training in an attempt to hold steady. Key precursors to holding a bow steady whilst at full draw are movement of the archer’s centre of pressure and changes in joint angle and angular velocity at the shoulder, wrist and elbow. The aim of this study was to increase knowledge and understanding of the key biomechanical factors that are associated with the ability to keep an archery bow steady whilst shooting. Specifically, the x,y and of elite, intermediate and novice shooting performance were analysed. Kinetic and kinematic data was collected using two Kistler force platforms and an automated CODAmotion analysis system. Three participants, 1 elite, 1 intermediate and 1 novice archer (mean height = 1.82m, mean body mass = 83.3 kg, and aged elite - 20, intermediate- 60 and novice - 51) performed five shots, standing 18m from a FITA 18 regulation target. Centre of pressure for each participants right and left foot were analysed to provide a profile of centre of pressure movement throughout the shot process. Joint angle and angular velocity profiles for the shoulder, elbow and wrist were analysed to assess range of movement and level of variability. Centre of pressure values varied between participant’s feet. All showed a greater centre of pressure movement in the right foot compared to the left. Joint angular velocity results provided distinct differences between participants. The elite archer experienced higher variability in the wrist (the most crucial joint) at a seemly constant rate whilst the intermediate and novice archers exhibited little movement early in the shot process but then increased substantially towards the latter stages. Differences can be seen in the joint angular velocity patterns. The elite exhibits a decreased variability towards the distal joint where as the intermediate and novice archers did not show a pattern regarding levels of variability compared to joint proximity.
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