Optimising the laboratory preparation of urine samples for cytological analysis: An evaluation of the Cytospin® Technique
O'Connell, Joanne Jemma
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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This studies purpose is to determine the optimum Cytospin® protocol for the production of qualitatively, acceptable and diagnostically accurate urine cytology preparation slides. The optimum protocol is to be determined by assessing and changing three variables; centrifugation speed, centrifugation time and volume used. Urine cytology is diagnostically important for the detection of disease anywhere in the urinary tract but one of the most prevalence reasons is for the detection of bladder cancer 8,9. Over the decades many techniques have been used for the slide preparation of urine specimens for cytological assessment. These techniques include liquid based cytology methods and conventional methods such as cytocentrifugation, sedimentation, membrane filtration and direct smearing. The Cytospin® technique is a method of cytocentrifugation, which uses high speed centrifugation to deposit a thin layer of cells onto the glass slide for cytological analysis. Many study's have compared cytocentrifugation methods with other methods of urine slide preparation, studies comparing LBC techniques such as ThinPrep® with cytocentrifugation for urine cytology have shown poor results especially in regard to slide cellularity". Methods of LBC such as ThinPrep® also gave cleaner backgrounds and Millipore filtration was found to give better cell recovery and better morphologic details than Cytocentrifugation 12. If an optimum Cytospin® technique was to be found it would improve slide preparation quality and therefore diagnosis, also it could have great economical and cost benefits compared to other LBC techniques such as ThinPrep®. Slide preparation was produced with a Cytospin2® machine using anonymous pooled residual cellular material from voided urine samples that were carefully selected from confirmed cases of transitional cell carcinoma of various grades that were submitted to Cytology laboratory at Llandough Hospital in Penarth, South Wales. The variables assessed were 3, 5 and 7mins, 850, 1500 and 2000rpm and 25, 50, 75, 100, 250 and 500µl of sample volume. Slides were then blinded and scored on their cellularity and cytomorphological analysis, 93 slides were assessed by the end of the study. The studies qualitative and statically data proposes that the centrifugation time, speed and volume will affect the quality of the slide; as a result this indicates there will be an optimum choice of variables for the Cytospin® technique for producing qualitatively accurate preparation slides for cytological diagnosis of urine specimens.
BSc (Hons) Biomedical Science
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