A study of the effect of sample volume on the efficiency of extraction of caffeine from aqueous solution
Parry, Hannah Elizabeth
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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Introduction: This project is designed to determine the effectiveness of extraction methods of caffeine metabolites from aqueous samples. Caffeine is recreationally and medically used as a stimulant for the nervous system and can also be used to restore mental alertness and also increase motor function in few cases. Due to caffeine's ability to work very effectively at increasing an individual's alertness, improving memory, releasing hormones which can increase physical performance due to the already established store of glucose it is for these reasons why caffeine is found in sports snacks and drinks. In 2004, caffeine was placed on the International Olympic Committee (IOC) banned substance list providing the athlete was within the acceptance limit of 12 µg/ml in their urine. The few athletes who do not get consultation from a sports nutritionist may be over-feeding their body with caffeine and then appear to not be competing as well because of the negative effects of the ergogenic aid on the body and also receive a ban from the governing body and well as the IOC. Methods: The samples are extracted using solvent phase extraction techniques, and then analysed using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Results: The calibration plots were obtained by the use of HPLC. Each point on the graphs are average values taken from three initial reading taken from the chromatographs produced by the machine. The caffeine peak area results are extremely high for the sports drinks, showing a high concentration of caffeine within the drink at small sample volumes. Conclusion: To conclude, this base method was robust and rugged although showing variance with the internal standard results. Linear calibrations from which sample concentrations can be validated. The method worked with all sample concentrations of caffeine, nonetheless worked less accurately on the larger sample volumes. Results were reproducible; however precision of manual handling throughout the experiment is questionable, considering that of the HPLC injections were more precise and accurate,
BSc (Hons) Sports Biomedicine and Nutrition
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