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dc.contributor.authorHanton, Sheldon
dc.contributor.authorEvans, Lynne
dc.contributor.authorNeil, Rich
dc.identifier.citationHanton, S., Evans, L. and Neil, R. (2003) 'Hardiness and the competitive trait anxiety response', Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 16(2), pp.167-184.en_US
dc.descriptionThis article was published in Anxiety Stress & Coping: An International Journal in 2003, available at
dc.description.abstractThis paper was the first to examine the effects of hardiness, alongside skill level, upon competition-related anxiety in sports performers. The findings demonstrated that elite athletes high in hardiness reported lower competitive anxiety levels, more facilitative interpretations of symptoms, and higher self-confidence levels when compared to non-elite performers. Findings suggest that hardiness moderates how competitive anxiety is interpreted by athletes and has implications for performance enhancing consultants and athletes of various skill levels. Neil co-generated the research question, collected and analysed the data, and contributed to the writing/editing of the manuscript.en_US
dc.publisherAnxiety Stress & Coping: An International Journalen_US
dc.titleHardiness and the competitive trait anxiety responseen_US

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