AN INVESTIGATION INTO HOW MOTVATIONAL AND CULTURAL BARRIERS
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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Sport Wales’ (2012) attempt of creating initiatives to increase participation levels for all, women are still under represented in sport, with only 51% of female participating in regular physical activity compared to 62% of males. An example of an initiative Sport Wales’ (2012) is the "The Women’s in Leadership Programme". Its aim was to address the issue of low levels of women within Wales in senior positions. This was enforced within all sports in the sporting industry to attempt equality between genders in sport. However Gorely et al., (2003) stated many women who take part in physical activity, especially more non feminine appropriate sports, are seen as unfeminine and do not reflect the feminine ideal, therefore created a barrier for women wishing to participate in sport. This was reiterated by Sport Wales (2012) who indicated that there is still a gender divide in terms of participation levels and which sports which women are taking part in. The current research focuses upon women and whether certain motivational and cultural barriers affected their choice of fitness class. This study used a qualitative approach of semi-structured interviews (n=6). These females all fit the criteria of participating in at least 1 fitness class per week thus provided an appropriate contribution to knowledge and possible solutions to over the issue. The results concluded alongside the review of literature, that there was a gender difference in association with choice of fitness class. There were many suggestions of influences for women these ranged from their parents, families, peers, PE structures within school or certain sports having gender labels and society’s views of women in sport and women’s preferences of preferring non-competitive sessions. Hence showing it was evident many barriers needed to be overcame for women’s low levels of participation in sport and fitness. A recommendation for future research would be to undertake the study upon males to find out whether they agree with society’s norms, that women are the weaker sex in association with sport.
DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONOURS) SPORT DEVELOPMENT
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