The Power of Contact on Non-Elite Ice Hockey Performers Self-Confidence
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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The aim of this investigation was to examine the power physical contact has upon non-elite ice hockey performers of the Cardiff Devils National Ice Hockey League (NIHL) Development team using Vealey’s (2001) sources of sport-confidence model. Seven non-elite performers completed a course of three pre-interview diaries and three follow up semi-structured interviews which aimed at gaining a greater insight into physical contact in amateur performance. Previous research only highlights the physiological implications contact has within a non-elite setting (Halpin., 2007; Semiyha & Fehmi, 2011) and believes that contact should be banned at this level of performance. Three rounds of pre-interview diaries and follow up interviews assessed the self-confidence of performers, aimed at exploring and describing sources of Vealey’s (2001) sport-confidence model. Stage one (n=7) and two (n=6) of data collection were specific to recent competition. Round three utilized athlete’s experiences from the season. Demonstration of ability, vicarious experiences, social support and mastery were sources most frequently used to influence athletes’ confidence during contact situations. Overall, these athletes demonstrated and believed that they possessed a greater self-confidence in comparison to those who found these sources less beneficial. Instead, they more frequently discussed coaches’ leadership, environmental comfort and situational favourableness as sources that aided their confidence. Physical presentation was least frequently discussed assisting Hays et al (2007) along with physical and mental preparation. Findings suggest that athletes place greater emphasis on certain sources to develop and aid their self-confidence in contact situations. Participants rarely discussed the implications contact had to their confidence which could be due to the nature of the sport being legitimately aggressive. Vealey et al (1998) identified the link sportconfidence has with motivation and anxiety although it is not displayed in the model it is still an important factor that may pave the way for future research.
DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONOURS) SPORT AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION
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