Score-line Effect on Work Rate in Amateur Soccer
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect score-line has on the work rate of amateur soccer players at university level. Previous literature on the score-line effects on work rate has only investigated elite players (O’Donoghue and Johnston, 2002; Shaw and O’Donoghue, 2004; Clark and O’Donoghue, 2013) where amateur soccer cannot be compared to. The study consisted of 20 outfield amateur soccer players, where two players were observed on different teams in the same match, for a full 90 minute game. Central defenders, external defenders, central midfielders, external midfielders and forwards were the positional categories used. The computerised time motion analysis system was used to manually code the voice recorded clips on an electrical device. The reliability study of the system found to have a Moderate level of agreement (Altman, 1991) using a Kappa test on an inter-reliability study. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics to determine percentages, frequencies and durations of player movements to identify any significant differences in work rate between the different score-line states. A further statistical analysis was conducted using a Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test, which was used to compare the seven movements between the Level-Behind and Level-Ahead groups. The overall result of this study found that there is no score-line effect on percentage of time spent performing high intensity activity. Within the level-behind group, possible explanations for no significant differences could be a number of reasons; one possibility could be players work rate remains the same to regain possession and score enough goals to level. Regarding the level-ahead group, it is possible that players lose concentration, resulting in teams sitting on the lead. However, other possible explanations could be due to substitutions and coach motivation. If all features of amateur soccer stay unaffected by score-line states, coach motivation tactics and substitutions should aim to decrease player perceptions that the final outcome of the match is inevitable and should inspire belief of control over the final outcome.
DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONOURS) SPORT AND EXERCISE SCIENCE
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