WHAT ARE THE KINEMATICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE DOMINANT AND NON-DOMINANT LEGS DURING AN INSTEP SOCCER KICK CONTAINING AN ACCURACY CONSTRAINT?
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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The purpose of this study was to compare kinematic differences including joint coordination profiles and variability between dominant and non-dominant leg instep kicks containing an accuracy constraint. Four intermediate male footballers aged between 20-22 years (Age mean 20.9 ± 0.8 years) with height and mass characteristics of 174.1 ± 6.5 cm and 70.3 ± 4.0 kg respectively, volunteered to participate in the study. Participants performed multiple instep kicks at a target (2.40 m x 2.40 m) from 11 m away with the dominant (n=10) and non-dominant legs (n=10) with the aim of hitting as close to the centre as possible. Motion data was collected at the ankle, knee and hip joints of each kicking leg, with joint angular positions, velocities and couplings being computed via a within-subject design. Shot accuracy profiles and ball speed data were also collected. Joint coordination profiles of the ankle-knee and knee-hip showed movement patterns between legs for participants to be similar, although the sets of angles this movement took place across did vary. The non-dominant ankle had more dorsi-flexion throughout the kick for participants 1, 2 and 4, whilst the hip joint was more flexed throughout the majority of the kick for participants 1, 2 and 3. The ankle joint showed most agreement with dynamical systems theory, with coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC) values of the whole kicking movement and standard deviations of mean peak flexion angles at impact showing variability in the dominant leg to be greater. No substantial difference was displayed between legs for degrees of shot accuracy, although outcome variability of shot accuracy plots and ball speeds were lower for the dominant leg with all participants. It was concluded that joint interaction patterns do transfer between legs for participants, but vary between individuals. Nondominant leg attempts appeared to utilise a more dorsi-flexed ankle joint, possibly to iii compensate for other weaknesses in the control of the less-trained leg in aid of lifting the ball.
DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONOURS) SPORT AND EXERCISE SCIENCE
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