The External to Internal rotational shoulder strength in competitive swimmers
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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Objective: A time-loss injury definition was used to determine if previous shoulder pain affected competitive swimmers current shoulder external to internal rotational strength, examining the effects of test position on the presentation of possible muscle weakness. Method: 29 competitive swimmers were recruited; however 25 competitive swimmers participated within the study. The participants were subdivided into groups based on no experience of pain or into two groups based on time-loss of pain; No significant shoulder pain N = 9), Significant shoulder injury (N = 8), Significant shoulder pain (N = 8). A Handheld dynamometer was used to measure shoulder external and internal rotational strength in three different test positions. The ratio (ER/IR) was calculated in each position, by dividing ER strength by IR strength. Differences between mean ER/IR strength of the three groups against the within factor of test position was analysed using a three-way repeated measures ANOVA with significance at (p = <.05). Results: No significant differences were found between the groups for the ER/IR strength (p = 1.0). Statistical differences were found in the outer-range test position to the neutral position within the SSI group (p = .30) and the NSSP (p = .22). The NSSP group also displayed significant difference between the neutral to mid position (p = .45). Although no statistical differences were displayed between test position within the SIP group (p = .56). Conclusion: The results show no effects of previous injury on current ER/IR strength but differences are found in test position. This provides a pathway of changing participants positioning in order to increase difficulty when strengthening muscle weakness and choosing correct test position when examining muscle strength. Further studies need to be completed upon previously injured swimmers who have undergone rehabilitation to identify possible ER/IR strength differences upon different management of injury.
DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONOURS) SPORT CONDITIONING, REHABILITATION AND MASSAGE
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