Workforce analysis for the Libyan hotel sector: stakeholder perspectives
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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Tourism in Libya is perceived as the best long-term alternative to the oil industry upon which the country's economy has been heavily dependent. Hotels are a key element in the tourism industry. This study focused on developing a model of workforce analysis (WFA) for the Libyan hotel sector to support the development of Libya as an internationally competitive tourism destination. Specifically, the objectives of this study were: to explore tourism development in Libya and critically analyse Human Resource Development (HRD) strategy proposed in the Libyan Tourism Master Plan (LTMP) for the Libyan hotel sector; to carry out a critical review of literature to identify HRD issues in the tourism and hospitality industry as well as alternative models of workforce planning (WFP) to inform adaptation of a unified theoretical model; to identify Human Resource (HR) issues facing the Libyan hotel sector and establish congruence and dissonance between the hotel sector, Hospitality Education Institution HEI and government views on these issues and to develop a best practice WFA model appropriate to the needs of the Libyan hotel sector. This study was carried out in four main stages. The first stage involved an extensive literature review to generate a background and develop a theoretical framework for the research. This study adopted a case study approach (Yin, 2003), incorporating semi-structured interviews with hotel managers, HEI staff and government officials. The second stage involved the use of the Delphi technique to build consensus on the best practice WFP model for the Libyan hotel sector. The third stage involved conducting further semi-structured interviews with hotel managers, HEI staff and government officials to identify key WFP issues within the Libyan hotel sector. The fourth stage provides recommendation to solve the existing human resource problems facing the hotel sector and WFP implementation strategy. The study concludes that there are some major HR issues facing the Libyan hotel sector, including: recruitment and selection; skills gaps; inadequate practical training; minimum opportunities given to overseas workers; role of public and private sector in HR development; shortage of qualified academic staff; outdated curricula; inadequacy of LTMP; funding of Libyan HEIs; lack of co-operation between the hotel sector, HEIs and the government; leakage of graduates and academic staff and poor image. To tackle these HR issues, this study proposes a best practice WFP model for the Libyan hotel sector. The WFP model comprises seven elements: the government; the hotel sector (demand side); the HEIs (supply side); gap analysis; workforce development plan (WFDP); implementation strategy and evaluation. The main contributions of this study include: the understanding of the key HR issues confronting the Libyan hotel sector; the application of Delphi technique to build consensus on the essential elements for WFP model for the Libyan hotel sector and the development of a best practice WFP model.
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