Goal orientations and sports motivation: relationships with U.S. collegiate athlete's scholarship status and gender
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether U.S. collegiate athletes' sports motivation (Pelletier et a1., 1995) and goal orientations (Nicholls,1992) vaty as a function of scholarship status and gender. Furthermore, the study examined the relationships between sports motivation and goal orientations. Participants comprised 82 male and 90 female intercollegiate athletes from a variety of colleges across the United States. Participants completed a series of paper-and-pencil questionnaires including the Sports Motivation Scale (Pelletier et aI., 1995) and the Perception of Success Questionnaire (Roberts and Ballague, 1989). Discriminant analysis results revealed that non-self-determined forms of extrinsic motivation and ego orientation best discriminated the scholarship status and gender functions. Results further indicated that in comparison to non-scholarship athletes, scholarship athletes displayed higher levels of extrinsic motivation and ego orientation, and lower levels of intrinsic motivation and task orientation. V/ith respect to gender, females reported higher levels of intrinsic motivation and task orientation and lower levels of extrinsic motivation and ego orientation. The results highlight the importance of assessing goal orientations, extrinsic motivation and amotivation in conjunction with intrinsic motivation. Further, the results were consistent with theoretical predictions and provide converging evidence that rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation. The study concludes that intervention strategies should be implemented to counter the effect of scholarships on college athletes.
BSc (Hon) Sport, P.E. and Recreation
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