ASTHMATIC ATHLETES AND THE IMPACT OF SALBUTAMOL AND A HIGH INTENSITY INTERVAL WARM-UP ON THE BRONCHOCONSTRICTOR RESPONSE TO EXERCISE
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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Aim: The main aim of this thesis was to investigate the efficacy of high-intensity interval warm-up on the severity of Exercise Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB), compared to an inhaled short-acting beta2-agonist and a combination of the two on pulmonary function. This was to assess whether a warm-up protocol prior to exercise may be additive, or used in its own right to block the EIB response. Method: Eight healthy, moderately to welltrained female rugby players (age [mean age ± SD] 20.3 1.2 years; height, 165.8 8.2 cm; body mass, 71.9 8.0 kg; maximum heart rate, 195 2.1 bpm) with physiciandiagnosed asthma and documented EIB were tested under 4 experimental conditions: 1) Control condition (CON) 2) a high-intensity interval warm-up (WU); 3) with inhaler (200 μg of salbutamol) (IH); 4) a combination of a high-intensity warm-up and inhaler sessions (IH + WU). All 4 experimental conditions were followed by an exercise challenge test consisting of 8 minutes running on a motorised treadmill, at an intensity of 85-90% of maximum heart rate. Pulmonary function was assessed using Spirometry, pre-exercise and at 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30-minute intervals post-exercise. Results: The mean maximum percentage fall in pre to post-exercise forced expiratory volume in 1-sec (FEV1) for all asthmatic subjects during the EIB screening test (CON protocol) was -17.57 ± 3.39%. Following the WU condition, the mean maximum percentage fall in post-exercise FEV1 significantly decreased (p<0.05) to -3.85 ± 4.24%, beneath the indicative limit of a 10% fall in post-exercise FEV1. Both the IH (+9.20 ± 2.91%) and IH +WU (+16.31 ± 5.59%) conditions resulted in considerable post-exercise bronchodilation, represented by a significant increase (p<0.05) in the mean maximum percentage change in post-exercise FEV1 and FVC. Similar trends were observed as a consequence of experimental condition for PEF. However, the mean maximum percentage change in post-exercise PEF following the IH protocol (+2.53 ± 3.14) was greater than that of the WU + IH condition (+0.46 ± 2.94). Conclusion: Results indicated that WU protocol prior to exercise, induced a suggestive refractory period and in turn, reduced the bronchoconstrictor response to exercise. Additionally, the combination of the IH + WU conditions demonstrated significant bronchodilation of the airways, inducing a superior protective effect against emerging EIB than any of the other solitary treatment protocol.
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