A kinematic and inverse dynamic analysis of the looped bar longswing and three associated progressions on high bar
University of Wales Institute Cardiff
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Based on specificity of training and biomechanical analysis, the main aim of the present investigation was to develop a method to rank selected progressions for learning the LB backward longswing on high bar. Two members of the university gymnastics squad were recorded in the sagittal plane (50 Hz) performing three series of three longswings and three progressions. Checks for accuracy and reliability were achieved through repeated digitisations of spherical markers (0.10m in diameter) located at 5 points within the calibrated area. Results from statistical calculations (RMSD) illustrated that the progression which showed the most similarity to the target skill was the LASD (summed RMSD 79.5%) which was followed by the LP (86.8%) and the LSNA which showed the most kinematic difference to the target skill. The most significant differences were found to exist between the hip kinematics for the target skill and each progression. To further investigate the muscle actions involved in the execution of the longswing and progressions an inverse dynamics analysis was performed on the kinematic data. The human performer was modelled as a four segment system joined by hinge joints, each segment was assumed to be rigid and have a uniform density. A free body diagram was established that detailed the forces and moments acting on each segment and the coordinates of the key joint centres were applied. A ‘toe- up’ approach assuming zero force acting upon the toe (open chain) was used to calculate relative forces at the hip and shoulder. Results from this analysis indicated a concentric muscular contraction at the hip and shoulder joints (maximum muscle moments 1.93 Nm/kg) mechanical power at the hip joint also showed positive power at this time, achieving a group average maximum power at the hip of 4.74 W/kg. Results from the progressions also illustrated a similar pattern although the extremes of the motions differed. Results from equations establishing the work done at the musculature illustrated that although only 25% of work done is done in the functional phase of the motion in the target skill, this increased dramatically for each progression (LSNA 50% : LASD 75% : LP 100%). Results also indicated that work done by the shoulder exceeds that done by the hip on all accounts.
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