Gender comparison: joint angles and force distribution during a back squat
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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Background: Research shows that female athletes suffer from more knee injuries than male athletes; this may be due to a number of factors including a possible lack of strength and anatomical differences. The biomechanics of the squat vary between genders which could stress certain anatomical structures, such as ligaments, which could predispose females to injuries of the knee, such as ACL injuries. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare joint kinematics during the back squat between males and females and relate to injury of joints, specifically the knee and investigate whether females are at a greater risk of these injuries. Methods: This was carried out using a four scanner CODAmotion V6.79.3 analysis system (Charnwood Dynamics Ltd, Leicestershire, UK) to collect marker positions whilst the participants performed a back squat at varying resistance. The squat time, joint angles, knee separation, force distribution, and peak force was analysed for both males and females. Four female and four male students, all physically active, weight trained and injury free, took part in this study. The mean+SD for age = 20+1 years, height = 1.78+0.10 m and mass = 78.4+10.8 kg. Results & Discussion: Results showed that females could be more susceptible to knee injuries than males for reasons such as posture determined by joint angles, knee valgus represented by knee separation, application of force / force distribution, and peak force. Further research is required to analyse joint kinetics to investigate internal loads acting on the knee.
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