The Kinematics and Kinetics of a front and back squat
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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Aim: The purpose of this study were to understand and explain kinematic and kinetic differences between back and front squat variations. Back and front squats are widely used exercises Methods: 7 participants, 4 females and 3 males (mean±SD, height = 176.2±9.7 cm, mass = 78.4±10.8 kg, Age = 20.3±1.0 years) performed 3 sets of back squats and 3 sets of front squats (40% 1RM = 6 reps, 60% 1RM = 4 reps and 80% 1RM = 2 reps). Participants squatted onto a force plate at Cardiff Metropolitan University. The 3D Coda motion analysis system was used to identify kinematic and kinetic variables of the different types of squats. A paired t-test was used to calculate significant differences in GRF between both types of squats. Angles were calculated for all participants. Results: Results showed that the back squat exhibited greater flexion and extension in all joint complexes apart from the ankle. Trunk lean was significantly greater in the BS variation. P<0.05 showed no significance in GRF. The results of this study suggest that back squat gives an increased risk of lower back injury. Conclusion: These findings suggest that back squats are better for overall performance with the front squat being a safer exercise to perform to decrease the risk of injury, due to the decrease in trunk lean and forces applied at the joint complexes
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