Does the time of the attacking action in kendo influence the success rate of ippon?
Ogle, James Gordon
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The aim of this study was to investigate whether the time of an attacking action influenced the success rate of ippon (valid point) in international, elite level kendo. There is a lack of variability analysis in the area of performance and technique analysis to find an optimum range for performance timings which allows the question of whether the successful elite level athletes are able to reproduce successful movements better than their unsuccessful counterparts. Selected videos were viewed using Kinovea where the time of the attacking action could be viewed frame by frame. Movements were measured from the start of the forward or downward movement of the shinai until impact or until the point of the shinai had passed through the target area if the cut was a complete miss. The winners of the matches presented a noticeably higher frequency of attacks between 0.09s and 0.12s and attacks with a duration of ≥0.24s although Levene’s test showed the difference in SD not to be significant at p=0.26. Time of attack in relation to the outcome showed 7.6% of 0.09-0.12s attempts and 6.5% of 0.13-0.15s attempts lead to ippon. For the time of attack in relation to the outcome and attacking time per round of the competition both Levene’s tests and ANOVA tests presented nonsignificant results, but both tests presented significant values of p=<0.01 when comparing the time of attacks between individuals that reached the Last 16 with those that reached the ½ finals and finals. These results suggest there is an optimal timing range in kendo that produces a winning strike and that optimal ranges for performance will exist in other sports or disciplines. A marking scheme is proposed for elite level sport but the relative importance of different aspects needs to be considered so that it is effective and applicable.
- Masters Degrees (Sport) 
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