Exercise promotion for females in the pre contemplation and contemplation stages of behaviour change
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The adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle should be seen as movement through a series of stages representing different levels of readiness for exercise (Gorley and Bruce, 2000). The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) has been commonly used to help understand the process of exercise behaviour change (Prochaska and DiClemente, 1983). There are five stages within the TTM, pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action and maintenance (Spencer et al., 2006) and associated through the movement of change are three psychological constructs, process of change, self-efficacy and decisional balance (Gorley and Bruce, 2000 and Spencer et al., 2006). As individuals move through the stages of change, research has shown that there is an increase in self efficacy and the pros of exercise and a decrease in the cons (Gorely and Bruce, 2000). Whilst some authors believe that interventions based on the TTM simplify exercise behaviour (Adams and White, 2005), it has been commonly agreed that interventions should be tailored to an individual and specific to their current stage of change (Gorley and Bruce, 2000; Adams and White, 2005 and Spencer et al., 2006). Participants in the current study consisted of females in the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages of change (n = 18). The intervention consisted of six thirty minute exercise promotion workshops that were delivered over a period four weeks, questionnaires were administered pre and post intervention. The following measures were included: Stage of change instrument (SCI) (Marcus and Simkin, 1993), Barrier Self Efficacy (BSE) (Resnick et al., 2000), Exercise Self-Efficacy (ESE) (Bray and Cowen, 2004), Process of Change (POC) (Rossi et al., 1992) and Decisional Balance (Marcus, Rakowski, and Rossi, 1992). Results showed that all but one of the participants increased their stage of change following the intervention. There were significant differences observed when considering self efficacy, with responses to BSE and ESE significantly different between pre and post intervention (p = < 0.001). For the POC results, Wilcoxon tests showed that values were significantly higher post intervention for consciousness raising ( = – 3.635, p = <0.001), dramatic relief ( = – 2.397, p = <0.05) counter conditioning ( = – 3.630, p = <0.001) and stimulus control ( = – 3.534, p = <0.001). Results from the t-test also demonstrated significant differences for environmental re-evaluation, self revaluation, social liberation, helping relationships, reinforcement management and self liberation (in all cases p = <0.001). Finally, significant increases were seen in the pros of exercise (p =<0.001) and significant decrease in the cons (p =<0.005) following intervention. The current research supports the use of the TTM in designing interventions to increase exercise participation in the short term and also highlights the relationship between TTM, self efficacy, process of change and decisional balance. Limitations include sample size, issues with measures and timing of the workshops however overall the current research has shown that a series of exercise promotion workshops were successful in facilitating change in exercise behaviour amongst a small group of sedentary females.
- Masters Degrees (Sport) 
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