Examine the effects of feed forward on the proficiency of penalty kicks in football, using a performance analysis framework and a manual notation system, re-testing performance after a tactical intervention strategy
University of Wales Institute Cardiff
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Penalty kick performance is significantly lower than expected, Kuhn (1988) stated that between 25-33% were missed, Morya et al. (2003) also stated that perceptions regarding saving, are well within the goalkeeper’s capabilities, and Morya et al. (2005) also reflected that given the circumstances, takers are underachieving. The purpose of this research was to study the influence of increased tactical and technical understanding with regards to specific penalty taking strategies, acknowledging successful components from performance profiling, consequently providing the opportunity to improve penalty takers success. Rationalised in Hughes and Wells’ (2002) study, proposing performance profiling was evident in Germany’s penalty taking strategies. Sixteen outfield players participated, collectively taking 40 penalties each, a total of 640 penalty kicks were analysed, examining the effect of an intervention strategy through the use of two groups (control and experimental). The participants in the control group were not informed of any tactical strategies and exercised freedom of choice in their kicks, whereas the experimental group were provided with technical and tactical strategies (based upon previous research), with a view to influence the proficiency of their penalties. This was done using video analysis and tactical feed forward, the variables analysed included shot efficacy (ratio of goals, misses and saves), placement of penalty kicks, number of paces used in run up, striking methods used and laterality analysis (foot). An overview of the analysis showed that 70.47% of penalties were successful, 17.91% were missed and 11.56% were saved. Although percentage success inferred a difference (58.13% - experimental, and 77.50% control), Mann Whitney testing stated there was no significant difference (P >0.05) between success rates and groups. It was concluded that there were optimal strategies for penalty taking, reflecting key contributing factors that enhance penalty kick performance.
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