Effects of teaching behaviours on motivational processes in physical education
University of Wales Institute Cardiff
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This thesis comprises of a collection of four research studies in the area of motivational climate in physical education (PE). In the first study, a computer based observational measure of the teaching behaviours that influence motivational climate (TARGET) was developed and the degree of congruence between the observational measure and pupils' and teachers' subjective perceptions of the motivational climate was evaluated. Results revealed mastery and performance involving teaching behaviours, congruency between teaching behaviours and subjective perceptions of the climate, and significant differences between teachers' and pupils' perceptions of the motivational climate. The second study further validated the measure of teaching behaviours by comparing teacher behaviours and pupils' perceptions of the motivational climate in a cross-cultural study. Results indicated significantly higher levels of performance involving teaching behaviours and higher levels of a perceived performance climate in Singapore compared to the UK. Based on findings related to the authority structure in the cross-cultural study, the third study examined the effects of different teaching styles on the TARGET behaviours and pupils' focus group responses in PE lessons in the UK. Results revealed that pupil-centred teaching styles resulted in more mastery involving teaching behaviours and more adaptive motivational responses than the more teacher-centred style. Based on these findings, the final study instigated a mastery intervention programme for teacher education based on self-observation of filmed PE lessons and evaluated its effect on the TARGET behaviours, pupils' perceptions of the motivational climate and cognitive and affective responses. The mastery intervention programme was successful in fostering more mastery involving teaching behaviours. Contrary to the hypothesis, pupils' perceptions of the motivational climate were more performance involved post-intervention, which may have been due to the public nature of the recognition and evaluation of effort and improvement (mastery coded). Further, results revealed that low affect pupils significantly increased their cognitive and affective responses from pre- to post-intervention.
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