The influence of an integrative approach of empowerment on the creative performance for employees
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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In recent years, a notable amount of studies have focused on the significant effect of the creative performance of employees has on the overall effectiveness of organizations. Therefore, researchers and scholars have suggested different management practices that influence the creative performance of employees. In the same vein, this study reviewed literature relevant to various management practices that influence creative performance, specifically, employee empowerment approaches. The study discussed the nature of the three major approaches of empowerment that have been examined in the literature: empowering leadership, empowerment climate and psychological empowerment, and the influence of these approaches on the creative performance of employees. Accordingly, the researcher combined the three empowerment approaches, building a theoretical framework based on linking empowering leadership to creative performance through empowerment climate and psychological empowerment, in order to build an integrative approach to empowerment. The researcher has distributed two different questionnaires to Jordanian banks in order to test the model of the study. One of the questionnaires has been designed to measure empowering leadership behaviors and practices, as well as measuring the empowerment climate and the psychological empowerment of employees in the Jordanian banking sector. The second questionnaire was designed to measure how managers perceive the creative performance of their employees. Accordingly, 500 matched questionnaires have been distributed to employees and their managers; 412 of these were matched and applicable for the analysis in the research. Several exploratory factor analyses tests have been conducted to ensure the validity of the scales. The results have shown that all adopted scales were loaded according to the original scales and maintained their dimensions; however, some items have been eliminated from the ii scales due to cross loading. Overall, the results were consistent with those found in the empowerment and creativity literature. Subsequently, correlation matrix tests were conducted between each new structural factor, in order to examine any possible relationship between an integrative approach of empowerment and creative performance. The results have supported all the hypotheses of the study. Afterwards, multiple regression tests were conducted to investigate the ability of an integrative approach of empowerment to predict the outcome of creative performance. The results have demonstrated that empowering leadership has a positive influence on both the empowerment climate and psychological empowerment. Similarly, the empowerment climate has a positive influence on psychological empowerment. Lastly, psychological empowerment has demonstrated a positive influence on creative performance. Furthermore, mediation analysis was used to test the model; the results demonstrated that psychological empowerment and the empowerment climate completely mediate the relationship between empowering leadership and creative performance. To illustrate, empowering leadership has a direct and an indirect influence on creative performance; however, empowering leadership has a demonstrably greater effect on creative performance through an empowerment climate and psychological empowerment (Indirect Influence). According to these results and findings, the researcher has provided theoretical and practical implications and recommendations for future researchers to take into consideration as to the importance of an integrative approach of empowerment and its effects on the creative performance of employees.
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