The influence of maturation on sprint performance in boys over a 21-month period
Hughes, Michael G.
Lloyd, Rhodri S.
Cronin, John B.
American College of Sports Medicine
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Purpose: This study examined how the characteristics of maximal overground sprint performance are affected by the period of peak height velocity (PHV) in boys. Methods: One hundred and eighty-nine school-aged boys completed two assessments of maximal sprint performance, separated by a 21-month period. Kinematic characteristics of sprint performance were collected during a 30 m sprint using a floor-level optical measurement system, with modelled force and stiffness characteristics also calculated. Participants were grouped according to maturation using a non-invasive predictive equation. Individuals whose maturity offset was <-0.5 yrs in both assessments were classed as ‘pre-PHV’ (n=67) while those whose maturity offset developed from <-0.5 to >0.5yrs in test two were classed as ‘pre-to-post-PHV’ (n=39). Participants with a maturity offset between >-0.5 and <0.5 yrs at test 2 were removed from analysis (n = 67) to ensure that the entire pre-to-post-PHV group had experienced the PHV spurt Results: The pre-to-post-PHV group experienced significantly greater increases in speed (10.4 vs. 5.6%) and relative vertical stiffness (12.1 vs. 5.6%) compared to the pre-PHV group. Step frequency declined (-2.4%) and contact time increased (2.3%) in the pre-PHV group, whilst step frequency increased (2.7%) and contact time decreased (-3.6%) in the pre-to-post-PHV group. Changes in relative measures of vertical stiffness, maximal force and leg stiffness accounted for 79% and 83% of the changes in speed between assessments for pre- and pre-to-post-PHV groups, respectively. Conclusion: As boys experience PHV there are greater increases in maximal sprint speed compared with those who remain pre-PHV. Furthermore, measures of relative stiffness and relative maximal force appear to exert an important influence on the development of maximal sprint speed in boys, regardless of maturity.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Meyers, R.W., Oliver, J.L., Hughes, M.G., Lloyd, R.S. and Cronin, J.B. (2016) 'The influence of maturation on sprint performance in boys over a 21-month period', Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 48 (12), pp. 2555–2562
This article was published in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise on 18 July 2016 (online) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001049
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Meyers, Rob (Cardiff Metropolitan University, 2016)The literature pertaining to the development of maximal sprint performance in male youth is sparse. Existing literature suffers from a combination of small sample sizes, a lack of control for the influence of maturity, ...
Lloyd, Rhodri S. (University of Wales, 2011)The stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) is an intricate muscle action, which is fundamental to successful plyometric performance. However, there currently exists minimal research examining the effects of age, maturation and ...
Meyers, Rob; Oliver, Jon; Hughes, Michael G.; Cronin, John B.; Lloyd, Rhodri S. (Human Kinetics, 2015-03)The purpose of this study was to examine the natural development of the mechanical features of sprint performance in relation to maturation within a large cohort of boys. Three hundred and thirty-six boys (11–15 years) ...