The Biomechanical Effects of Prosthetic Arm Use on Long Jump Performance and Leg Joint Kinematics and Kinetics at Take-Off
Jones, Morgan James
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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Following a review of current literature around the importance of arm swing in vertical and horizontal jumping and in light of the growth of Paralympic sport, the influence of prosthetic arm use on long jump performance of a T47 classified athlete was investigated, to understand whether varying arm swing would yield an immediate change in long jump performance. In two data collection sessions, one week apart, a total of 12 jumps, 6 with prosthetic and 6 without prosthetic, were completed in an indoor athletics facility. Jump performance was measured using a steel tape measure. Kinetic and kinematic data were captured using a 10 camera Vicon motion analysis system and a Kistler 9827CA force platform. Data were processed in Vicon NEXUS and Visual 3D software and variables were normalised for stance. Ankle, knee and hip joint torques and powers were calculated within Visual 3D using inverse dynamics. Mean jump performance was found to be 0.02 m better in jumps when no prosthetic arm was used. Mean joint angles were found to be similar at all joints with PR and NPR. Mean torque and power at the ankle was found to be highest with PR which would have positively affected jump performance. Knee joint torque was highest with PR but knee joint power was lower. Hip joint torque and power was lower with PR. The use of PR reduced the contribution of the knee and hip to jump performance. It is thought that there is the potential to increase long jump performance for T47 athletes by using a forearm prosthesis but that long term training would be necessary.
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