Sport specific physiological adaptations in highly endurance trained athletes
American College of Sports Medicine
MetadataShow full item record
This study aims to compare maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max), blood volume (BV), hemoglobin mass (Hbmass), and brachial endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), in international-level endurance athletes primarily exercising with the whole body (cross-country skiing), lower body (orienteering), or upper body (flatwater kayak). METHODS: Seventeen cross-country skiers, 15 orienteers, and 11 flatwater kayakers were tested for V˙O2max, BV, Hbmass, and FMD. Additionally, body composition and annual training (type, volume, and intensity of training) were analyzed. RESULTS: Absolute and body-mass-normalized V˙O2max values were 11.3% and 9.9% higher, respectively, in skiers (5.83 ± 0.60 L·min and 77.9 ± 4.2 mL·min·kg) compared to orienteers (5.24 ± 0.45 L·min and 70.9 ± 3.5 mL·min·kg) (P < 0.01), whereas kayakers (5.78 ± 0.56 L·min and 73.7 ± 6.3 mL·min·kg) did not differ from skiers. BV was 9.9%-11.8% higher in skiers and orienteers compared to kayakers when normalized for total body mass and fat-free mass, and skiers had 9.2% and 9.9% higher Hbmass normalized for total body mass and fat-free mass compared to kayakers (all P < 0.05). Arterial diameter was 11.8%-15.0% larger in kayakers (4.38 ± 0.63 mm) and skiers (4.22 ± 0.36 mm) compared to orienteers (3.81 ± 0.32 mm) (P < 0.05), whereas FMD did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that higher V˙O2max in cross-country skiers and greater arterial diameters in the arms of skiers and kayakers are sport-specific physiological adaptations to chronic endurance training in whole-body and upper-body exercise modes. However, variations in these variables are not associated with BV or Hbmass.
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise;
Lundgren, K., Karlson, T., Sandbakk, Ø., James, P. & Tjønna, A. (2015) 'Sport specific physiological adaptations in highly endurance trained athletes', Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 47(10), pp.2150-2157.
This article was published in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise in October 2015, available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000634
Cardiff Metropolitan University (Grant ID: Cardiff Metropolian (Internal))
Showing items related by title, author, subject and abstract.
Irwin, Gareth (Human Kinetics, 2018)Purpose: In the sprint events, the first two steps are used to accelerate the center of mass horizontally and vertically. Amputee athletes cannot actively generate energy with their running specific prosthesis. It is ...
Gittoes, Marianne J.R.; Ashford, Kelly; Michelmore, Charlotte; Moore, Isabel (Taylor & Francis, 2017-11-14)Running gait retraining, which uses motor learning strategies, is increasingly being advocated as an effective rehabilitation approach to allow runners to mitigate the risks of re-injury and to remain physically active ...
Functional phase and angular momentum characteristics of high bar swinging: Differences between the Kovacs and Tkachev on high bar Irwin, Gareth; Exell, Timothy; Manning, Michelle; Kerwin, David G. (Taylor & Francis, 2016-05-10)Understanding the technical requirements and underlying biomechanics of complex release and re-grasp skills on high bar allows coaches and scientists to develop safe and effective training programmes. The aim of this study ...