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dc.contributor.authorRoberts, Justin
dc.contributor.authorSuckling, Craig
dc.contributor.authorPeedle, Georgia
dc.contributor.authorMurphy, Joseph
dc.contributor.authorDawkins, Tony
dc.contributor.authorRoberts, Michael
dc.date.accessioned2016-11-30T15:32:32Z
dc.date.available2016-11-30T15:32:32Z
dc.date.issued2016-11-17
dc.identifier.citationRoberts, J. D., Suckling, C. A., Peedle, G. Y., Murphy, J. A., Dawkins, T. G., & Roberts, M. G. (2016). An Exploratory Investigation of Endotoxin Levels in Novice Long Distance Triathletes, and the Effects of a Multi-Strain Probiotic/Prebiotic, Antioxidant Intervention. Nutrients, 8(11), 733.en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10369/8225
dc.descriptionThis article was published in Nutrients on 17 November 2016 (online), available open access at http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu8110733en_US
dc.description.abstractGastrointestinal (GI) ischemia during exercise is associated with luminal permeability and increased systemic lipopolysaccharides (LPS). This study aimed to assess the impact of a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant intervention on endotoxin unit levels and GI permeability in recreational athletes. Thirty healthy participants (25 males, 5 females) were randomly assigned either a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant (LAB4ANTI; 30 billion CFU·day−1 containing 10 billion CFU·day−1 Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL-60 (NCIMB 30157), 10 billion CFU·day−1 Lactobacillus acidophillus CUL-21 (NCIMB 30156), 9.5 billion CFU·day−1 Bifidobacterium bifidum CUL-20 (NCIMB 30172) and 0.5 billion CFU·day−1 Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis CUL-34 (NCIMB 30153)/55.8 mg·day−1 fructooligosaccharides/ 400 mg·day−1 α-lipoic acid, 600 mg·day−1 N-acetyl-carnitine); matched pro/prebiotic (LAB4) or placebo (PL) for 12 weeks preceding a long-distance triathlon. Plasma endotoxin units (via Limulus amebocyte lysate chromogenic quantification) and GI permeability (via 5 h urinary lactulose (L): mannitol (M) recovery) were assessed at baseline, pre-race and six days post-race. Endotoxin unit levels were not significantly different between groups at baseline (LAB4ANTI: 8.20 ± 1.60 pg·mL−1; LAB4: 8.92 ± 1.20 pg·mL−1; PL: 9.72 ± 2.42 pg·mL−1). The use of a 12-week LAB4ANTI intervention significantly reduced endotoxin units both pre-race (4.37 ± 0.51 pg·mL−1) and six days post-race (5.18 ± 0.57 pg·mL−1; p = 0.03, ηp2 = 0.35), but only six days post-race with LAB4 (5.01 ± 0.28 pg·mL−1; p = 0.01, ηp2 = 0.43). In contrast, endotoxin units remained unchanged with PL. L:M significantly increased from 0.01 ± 0.01 at baseline to 0.06 ± 0.01 with PL only (p = 0.004, ηp2 = 0.51). Mean race times (h:min:s) were not statistically different between groups despite faster times with both pro/prebiotoic groups (LAB4ANTI: 13:17:07 ± 0:34:48; LAB4: 12:47:13 ± 0:25:06; PL: 14:12:51 ± 0:29:54; p > 0.05). Combined multistrain pro/prebiotic use may reduce endotoxin unit levels, with LAB4ANTI potentially conferring an additive effect via combined GI modulation and antioxidant protection.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipUniversity of Hertfordshireen_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherMDPI (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesNutrients;
dc.subjectendotoxemia; probiotics; prebiotics; antioxidants; triathlonen_US
dc.titleAn Exploratory Investigation of Endotoxin Levels in Novice Long Distance Triathletes, and the Effects of a Multi-Strain Probiotic/Prebiotic, Antioxidant Interventionen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu8110733
dcterms.dateAccepted2016-11-15
rioxxterms.versionAMen_US
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/en_US
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2016-11-17


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