The Effect of Luteolin on Production of IL-8 and VEGF in Human CaCO-2 Colorectal Cancer Cells
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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Colon cancer is the fourth most commonly diagnosed cancer within the UK, and in 2014 there were 41,300 people diagnosed with the disease . With cancer statistics on the increase it would be beneficial for both patients and the National Health Service (NHS) to find natural alternatives for treatment and prevention, the use of which could relieve the burden of cost within the NHS. Luteolin is a bioflavonoid commonly found in many fruits and vegetables and has been shown to possess many therapeutic effects such as, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic and anti-cancer. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a key cytokine which initiates inflammatory responses, overexpression is caused by many cancers which can lead to increased survival and proliferation of tumours. Similarly, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a pro-angiogenic mediator which is upregulated in cancer and leads to increased growth and metastasis of the tumour. Therefore IL-8 and VEGF are good targets for anti-cancer therapy to prevent and modulate disease progression, and the aim of the study was to determine the role of luteolin on IL-8 and VEGF production in CaCO-2 cells. Initially, the in vitro effect of different concentrations on CaCO-2 cell viability was analysed using CellTiter- BlueTM assay. Results concluded luteolin (25-100 μM) induced a dose-dependent apoptotic effect decreasing the cells viability, concentrations 3.125-12.5 μM did not affect the cells viability. IL-8 and VEGF protein concentrations were measured by ELISA, luteolin was shown to significantly inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators IL-8 and VEGF in IL-1β-triggered CaCO-2 cells. Furthermore, cell migration assays were performed where cells were treated with luteolin at different concentrations. Results showed luteolin increased cell migration compared to untreated cells. Together, the results suggest luteolin at high concentrations could act as a potent inhibitor on CaCO-2 cell proliferation and survival, and when cells are triggered with IL-1β luteolin can inhibit the production of IL-8 and VEGF, thus in these conditions luteolin could be used as a therapeutic agent against colorectal cancer. The migration assay suggests luteolin at low concentrations may exhibit wound-healing properties in CaCO-2 cells which could prove beneficial in treatment of other diseases such as the complications of diabetes, however not prove beneficial in the treatment of cancer.
BSc (Hons) Biomedical Science
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