The Effects of Exposure, to Air Pollution Particles, on Secretion of Markers of Cardiovascular Inflammation, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 and Interleukin-6, in Cultured Endothelial Cells
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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Introduction: The link between exposure to air particles and damage to the cardiovascular system has been well-documented. However, the mechanisms are still yet to be defined. Recent focus of studies has involved ultrafine particles and translocation into the blood. This has a direct effect on endothelial cells and disruptions to regulatory pathways; involving adhesion molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exposure to urban particulate matter on inflammatory responses by vascular endothelial cells. Methods: A Human, Caussian, Umbilical Cord derived cell line (HECV) was exposed to 0-1.0mg/ml SRM 1648a Urban Particulate Matter, collected in St Louis, Missouri, for 24 hours. Supernatants were collected and used for ELISA analysis, measuring the biomarkers; ICAM-1 and IL-6. Statistical analysis was performed using an ANOVA. The effect of particles on endothelial cell morphology was investigated by light microscopy. Results: An increase in secretion of ICAM-1 by HECV when measured following incubation with particles, and secretion increased as the particle concentration increased. The relationship was linear, where ICAM-1 secretion increased from 57021 (ng/ml), at 0mg/ml to 2132481 (ng/ml), at 1.0mg/ml. Secretion of ICAM-1 by HECV cells was therefore dependent on the dose of particle. ANOVA analysis indicated that results were statistically significant, with p=0.002. There was a linear relationship between IL-6 secretion from HECV cells and particle dose. IL-6 increased from 10811 (ng/ml), at 0mgml to 368916 (ng/ml), at 1.0mg/ml. IL-6 secretion was also dose-dependent. Results were statistically significant indicated by ANOVA, p < 0.001. Interaction between analyte and particle resulted in significant morphological changes in endothelial cells and the effect of particles was again dose dependent. Conclusion: Inflammatory mediators were significantly increased by increasing doses of air particles. Increased ICAM-1 in circulation is linked to increased cardiovascular risks. The secretion of IL-6 in circulation is linked to increased 6 damage to endothelium. Furthermore, exposure of cells to particles was associated with significant changes in cellular morphology and thus, endothelial dysfunction. This investigation, therefore, demonstrates that exposure of the endothelium to air pollution particles results in increased inflammation and damage to the vascular endothelium. This could be a mechanism linking exposure to air pollution and increased cardiovascular risk.
BSc (Hons) Biomedical Sciences Degree
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