To Characterise the Effects of IFN-γ and Apigenin Stem Cell Derived Neural Cells
Southard, Michaela Rose Julia
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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Introduction: Inflammation is an important process within the body allowing for the removal of foreign antigens. In the CNS microglia act to scavenge the local environment to clear necrotic tissue and dead cell remnants and can become activated in response to inflammatory stimuli. This inflammatory response is involved in the development of many neurodegenerative diseases. IFN-γ is a common inflammatory cytokine which is upregulated during inflammation. Apigenin is a plant based flavonoid which has been proven to possess many antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. The aim of this study was to characterise the effects of apigenin on IFN-γ induced inflammation of human stem cell derived neural precursor cells and differentiated neurons and astrocytes. Methods: NSCs, neurons, or astrocytes were differentiated from H9 hESC-derived Neural Stem Cells and stimulated with IFN-γ, apigenin, or both. The concentration of IFN-γ was determined via the use of a viability assay to measure the mean PI fluorescence of cells. A flow cytometry assay was used to determine the expression of MHC class I and II molecules by neurons when treated with IFN-γ, apigenin, or both. The production of IL-6 by the three cell types was measured via the use of an ELISA. Results: The study found that all three concentrations of IFN-γ produced viable cells with no statistical difference between any of the concentrations. The expression of MHC class I and II was increased after being stimulated with IFN-γ, while the expression of MHC class I was further increased and the expression of MHC class II was decreased after being stimulated with IFN-γ and apigenin. The production of IL-6 by all three cell types was not statistically different between cell types or cell treatment types. 4 Conclusion: In conclusion; apigenin has been shown to possess many anti-inflammatory properties, however, this study has been unable to clearly highlight any of these properties. Results from the flow cytometry protocol indicate an anti-inflammatory role of apigenin through the decrease of MHC class II molecule expression in neurons. Previous studies have shown that apigenin plays this role, but they also indicate that MHC class I molecule expression would be decreased. Further work is needed to fully understand the anti-inflammatory role of apigenin in relation to IFN-γ mediated inflammation of neural cells.
BSc (Hons) Biomedical Science
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