The Effects of Air Pollution Particles on Endothelial Cells and the Production of Soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 and Interleukin-8 Biomarkers of Inflammation in regards to Increased Cardiovascular Disease
Davies, Sian Emma
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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Introduction Epidemiological studies have indicated that exposure to air pollution particles has contributed to global disease, resulting primarily in cardiovascular disease (CVD). The mechanism behind the increase in CVD however is still somewhat unclear, even though inflammation and endothelial dysfunction is evident. The aim of this investigation was to define the mechanisms linking exposure to air pollution particles and cardiovascular disease through examining the effect of air pollution particles on adhesion and cytokine secretion in vascular endothelial cells. Methods Human, Caucasian, Umbilical cord cells (HECV) were exposed to urban particle 1648A air pollution particles, which were collected in St Louis, Missouri. Cells were exposed to a range of concentrations from 0.0 mg/ml (control value) to 1.0 mg/ml for 24-hours. Subsequently the sICAM-1 and IL-8 secretions in the supernatant were measured (pg/ml), following the Human Duoset ELISA guidelines. Results Exposure of the cells to urban particle 1648A resulted in an increase in secretion of both IL-8 (from 0.0 mg/ml to 1.0 mg/ml) and ICAM-1 (from 0.0 mg/ml to 1.0 mg/ml). The increase in sICAM-1 was dose-dependent with a linear increase in sICAM-1 secretion coinciding with an increasing dose. Secreted IL-8 also increased with elevated particle dose however, the increase in secretion was not linear; little increase in secretion occurred until a particle concentration of 0.25 mg/ml. After this threshold concentration the dose response was linear. Conclusion It is evident that exposure of vascular endothelial cells to air pollution particles results in increasing expression of adhesion molecules and at higher dose an increase in generalised inflammation. Exposure to even low concentrations of air pollution particles has the potential to increase cardiovascular risk by increasing interactions between blood leukocytes and the vascular endothelium. This has important implications for public health in urban environments.
BSc Biomedical Sciences
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