Inflammation in cultured human epithelial cells after installation of carbon black pollution particles
Cardiff Metropolitan University
MetadataShow full item record
Introduction Carbon black particles are produced by incomplete combustion or thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons in industry and have numerous applications in both commercial and consumer products (Long et al., 2013). Their characteristics, shape, size, surface area and conductivity can be specifically varied and selected for with changes in the controlled manufacture processes. Temperature and pressure are both parameters carefully monitored in the manufacture process. They are very fine, powdered forms of carbon and are distinctively black coloured. The lungs are the main target of carbon black exposure by inhalation which therefore exposes the body to a systemic inflammation which has the capability and possibility of causing cardiovascular complications as well as respiratory issues. The oil furnace method is the most widely used manufacturing mechanism of producing carbon black particles. It consists of using heavy aromatic oils as feedstock which is introduced to a hot gas steam where it then vaporises to form carbon particles due to pyrolysis, which transforms organic materials into their gaseous forms (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2016). The reaction rate can be controlled by water sprays or steam and the carbon black particles are cooled and collected in a continuous process which produces some residual gases such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen which may then be used for other processes to produce heat or electrical power for example (Wojtowicz, 2001). Other processes used to produce carbon black include the thermal black process which produces carbon black and tailgas from natural gases, the acetylene black process which uses acetylene as the raw material, and the lampblack process which is the oldest method of producing carbon black (EFIG, 1996). Carbon black is largely used in rubber applications and a reinforcing agent in vehicle tires. It is also used in everyday products such as ink, paints and varnish (Kokhanovskaya et al., 2016). In terms of overall morphology, the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) terminology relating to carbon black describes it as having an aciniform morphology meaning that it has a form of a cluster of grapes, and is composed of ‘spheroidal primary particles strongly fused together to form discrete entities called aggregates’. Agglomeration can take place to produce larger entities called agglomerates which are held together by Van der Walls forces. These agglomerates may 4 break back down to aggregates by force. Carbon black is formerly placed on the market in the form of agglomerates (ICBA, 2004). The carbon black particles were added to THP-1 cells which are human leukaemia monocytic cell lines and are widely used to mimic monocytes in human cell culture models (Schildberger et al., 2013). The supernatants were removed and analysed for cytokine secretion in response to exposure to the air pollution particles. Interleukin 8 or IL-8 is a cytokine produced by various blood cells and tissue including human epithelial cells and has distinct target specificity for neutrophils (Bickel, 1993). TNF-α or tumour necrosis factor alpha is a key regulator of the inflammatory response but was previously associated with a factor that could cause necrosis of tumours (Bradley, 2008). Interleukin 6 or IL-6 is a cytokine that has many effects on cells and can display hormone-like characteristics (Hunter and Jones, 2015) This paper will be looking at the effects of carbon black pollution particles on cultured human epithelial cells to gain a better understanding of how this pollution particle specifically works and its implications on the body. Limited research has been carried out using carbon black particles and with an increase in health concerns regarding air pollution, it is a valuable and reasonable topic area to study. Some research has suggested that accumulative exposure to carbon black particles can cause some damage to respiratory function and therefore there are possibilities that it may also cause cardiovascular impairment through systemic inflammation as it is a nanoparticle.
Bsc Biomedical Science
Showing items related by title, author, subject and abstract.
Al Bulushi, Halima (Cardiff Metropolitan University, 2010)In epidemiological studies in humans, increased exposure to airborne particulate matter is associated with increases in cardiovascular malfunction, hospital admissions and morbidity and mortality rates. Although different ...
An Investigation into the Effects of Carbon Black Nanoparticles on Erythrocytes and Leukocytes In Vitro. Smith, Eleanor (University of Wales Institute Cardiff, 2012)The purpose of this laboratory investigation was to discover if the nanoparticle Carbon Black had any significant effect on the membranes of horse erythrocytes and leukocytes, in order to hypothesise the effect of Carbon ...
Investigating the cytokine induced inflammatory effects of carbon black particulate matter in cultured human monocyte cell models. Wocior, Kamil (Cardiff Metropolitan University, 2017-06-01)Introduction: A strong positive correlation between particulate matter exposure and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity has been previously observed. Epidemiological and toxicological studies have observed a PM-induced ...