the Effect that Exposure of Air Pollution Particles cause on Monocytes and the Concentration of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in relation to the Development of Cardiovascular Disease
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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Background: The exposure of humans to air pollution in urban environments has been widely associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and poor health in general. Many epidemiological studies have investigated this relationship to elucidate the mechanisms linking exposure with the onset of cardiovascular disease. Aim of the Study: This paper aims to investigate the direct effect that urban air pollution particles have on the secretion of a range of biomarkers (IL-6, IL-8 and ICAM-1), which have been associated with inflammation, and the onset of cardiovascular disease. Method: THP-1 (an imortalised human monocytic cell line) cells were incubated with 1648a urban particulate matter collected in St Louis, Missouri. Cells were incubated with 0-1mg/ml of particles for 24 hours. The concentration of IL-6, IL-8 and soluble ICAM-1 in the cell supernatant was determined by ELISA. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in IL-8 from 1.965ng/ml at 0 mg/ml particles to 69.89ng/ml with 1.0 mg/ml (p<0.001, ANOVA) and ICAM-1 increased 63.383ng/ml at 0 mg/ml particles to 442.92ng/ml with 1.0 mg/ml (p<0.001, ANOVA). Increases in both biomarkers of inflammation were dose dependent with a linear increase in IL-8 and ICAM-1 with increasing particle concentration. There was no measurable secretion of IL-6 by THP-1 cells; either in the presence of absence of particles. Conclusion: Exposure of monocytes to urban air pollution particles results in a dose dependent increase expression of adhesion molecules on the THP-1 cell line. There was also some evidence for a dose related inflammatory effect of particles on cells as there were increases in some inflammatory cytokines following particle exposure. Exposure to air pollution particles therefore has potential to increase adhesion and inflammation in blood cells. The results obtained from this work can be used to inform policy on environmental regulation.
BSc Biomedical Sciences (Health, Excercise & Nutrition)
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