The Effect of Air Pollution Particles on Production of Interleukin-6 and Intracellular Adhesion Molecule by Monocytes and Endothelial Cells in Co-Culture on Cardiovascular Disease.
Williams, Rhys John
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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Background A large majority of the current research has exposed mono cultured cells to particle matter (PM), then measuring their cytokine expressions. More recently, authors have advanced this to co-culture different types of cells, to replicate the effect of inflammation occurring in the lung, of which endothelial cells play no interest. However, in this study, we reproduce what occurs in the peripheral tissue, by directly exposing endothelial cells and monocytes to PM. Methods The co-culture of monocytes and endothelial cells contained APP from 0.05mg/ml to 1mg/ml or just media (as the control) for 24 hours. Following this, interleukin 6 and intracellular adhesion molecule were measured, following the appropriate ELISA guidelines. Due to the expression of said cytokines being so high further dilutions had to be made to the co-culture cells samples. IL6 was diluted 1 in 15, 1 in 50 and 1 in 100, while ICAM was diluted 1 in 50 and 1 in 100. Results The results from IL6 expression showed increasingly high elevation compared to its standards, therefore, further dilutions of 1 in 15, 1 in 50 and 1 in 100 were used. All P values through an ANOVA test came out a P: <0.001. ICAM levels showed even higher expression, as for the non-dilutions it could not be recorded, hence the reason for 1 in 50 and 1 in 100 dilutions. All P values were analysed via ANOVA, with P: <0.001. The effect of the co-culture increased the expression of both said cytokines compared to mono-cultures of both individual cell types. Conclusion The data shown indicates that endothelial cells appear to be the main target for air pollution particles as they secrete cytokines in response to particle exposure. This led to the recruitment of monocytes perhaps leading to adhesion and migration of monocytes into the vessel wall. This would lead to an increase in permeability of the endothelium and could in turn allow smaller nanoparticles such as air pollution particles to bypass the endothelium into the peripheral to potentially begin systemic inflammation.
BSc (Hons) Biomedical Sciences (Health, Excercise & Nutrition)
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