“It’s her fault for sending them in the first place” vs “Blame would definitely be with the person who released them”: A Study to Explore whether the Opinions of Males and Females Differ in Regards to Revenge Porn, and if the Level of Male Hypermasculinity has any Effect
Davies, Siwan Elina
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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The major advances in the technological world have led to the new phenomenon of revenge porn. Revenge porn is the non-consensual sharing of nude or semi-nude photos (Franklin, 2014). There is a common association between revenge porn and hypermasculinity (Phipps & Young, 2014). This refers to males who possess very masculine traits (Peters, et al., 2007) and these traits are often associated with young males who are involved with sports (Parrott & Zeichner, 2003). The aim of the study was to look at whether gender or level of hypermasculinity influenced the students' opinions regarding revenge porn. As a cross section of males was required for the study, the Hypermasculinity Index (Peters et al., 2007) was used to score possible male participants on their masculine traits, and their variations in scores would be more likely to lead to differences in opinions. Three scenarios were created to direct the interview in order to explore how opinions changed depending on the circumstances, where the males scored on the HMI and whether the participant was male or female. By using the qualitative approach of thematic analysis, common themes were found within the transcripts (Braun & Clarke, 2006). The themes which emerged from the data were Blame and Punishment, Victims, Relationships, Motivation, Effects of Revenge Porn and Lad Culture. The outcome of the results was not what was expected, with the most unexpected finding being how judgemental the female participants were towards the victims. Where it was expected that the male participants would victim blame, they did not at all, whereas the female participants had strong feelings towards victim blaming. The level of hypermasculinity did not have a considerable impact on opinions, although having a participant associated with lad culture provided an insight into the culture. The opinions of males and females did tend to differ on the majority of themes. The study was able to provide a further understanding into the topic of revenge porn. It was also able to identify direction for future studies such as focusing on minority groups such as male victims and victims within LGBTQ groups (Anderson, 2004; Ciccone, 2017).
BSc (Hons) Psychology
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